For migrant construction workers, who belong to an unorganized, vulnerable and low income group, living on the construction sites is the only feasible option. Living conditions for the migrant workers tend to be overlooked owing to lack of attention from their host construction companies and the workers are forced to build makeshift shanties to live in (commonly known as ‘Jhuggis’) due to lack of resources and foresight in design. These shanties are too weak to withstand strong winds and rains or have proper electrification which again reduces the safety of women and children. Toilets are often not functional, without access to water or flush systems or even absent in such settlements of migrant workers which lead to open defecation and that create an unhygienic and unsanitary surrounding for the residents. Under such circumstances, the women and children have to venture out at nights to defecate which compromise their safety.
The kitchens or cooking setups in these shanties are mostly mud hearths which use firewood, which is a big expense for the workers. Cooking over open fires inside or close to living spaces in the absence of proper ventilation lead to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes, which is harmful especially for pregnant women and young children who are more prone to the development of respiratory disorders. Lack of access to education, basic necessities, clean water, proper drainage and waste management are also commonly seen in such settlements which lead to unhygienic living conditions, rodent problems, high rate of infections, communicable and water borne diseases and diseases like malaria and dengue which all result in deplorable living conditions.